Nearsightedness is an eye disorder characterized by a short focusing distance and poor vision. Nearsightedness may be hereditary or develop later in life as a result of visual stress, such as close-up activities. Nearsightedness is often discovered during a child’s vision tests at school, although it may also be detected by parents whose child squints when trying to see objects that are far away.
While the exact cause of nearsightedness is unknown, studies have shown that environmental factors and modern technologies are among the causes. Additionally, the increase in “near work” (jobs requiring close vision) has been linked to a greater risk of developing myopia. Regardless of the cause, there are a number of prevention strategies available for people of all ages. Some of these strategies can be combined or used individually.
In many cases, myopia affects the peripheral vision, which means that far-away objects appear blurred. Symptoms of nearsightedness can include blurred vision, headaches, and difficulty seeing distant objects. While simple myopia may not cause any symptoms, it can impair the ability to see distant objects, including television or faces. Symptoms of nearsightedness may be difficult to detect in children because they are not able to verbalize them, but many are observable. Symptoms of nearsightedness include frequent blinking and eye rubbing.
Astigmatism affects the way light is focused on the retina. The most common symptom of astigmatism is blurred vision. People with this condition often experience headaches and eye strain. Often, astigmatism is caused by an eye disease, such as keratoconus. Astigmatism may be easily corrected with glasses or contacts, or surgery may be required. Treatment for astigmatism varies according to the severity and type of the condition.
In healthy people, astigmatism is present at birth but may change during the course of the disease. It is caused by uneven curvature of the cornea, which makes it difficult for light to focus on the retina. The curvature of a basketball or soccer ball is more pronounced than that of an eye with astigmatism, which causes blurred vision. Astigmatism can also occur due to aging or other causes.
People with high myopia are often unaware that they have it. They first experience blurred vision at a distance while noticing that others are able to see distant objects clearly. In many cases, teenagers are surprised to learn that their eyes actually function normally once they receive a contact lens prescription. Other symptoms of high myopia include frequent blinking and eye rubbing, and difficulty reading distance-distance materials.
Myopia is often hereditary. Some women are born with a higher risk than others. Using the Healthline FindCare tool can help you find a doctor who specializes in corrective eyeglasses and surgery. High myopia can be corrected with corrective lenses, refractive surgery, or surgery. Surgical solutions may involve refractive surgery or prescription eyeglasses. Optometrists recommend corrective lenses and bifocals as treatment options for high myopia.
Various pharmacological agents have been tried to correct the pathological changes of the eye, but none have been shown to be effective. Despite a wide range of treatments, no one treatment has been able to reverse the changes in the axial length. Despite the success of a few of these treatments, further research is needed to fully understand how they can be used to correct pathological myopia.
Pathological myopia is a condition in which the back of the eye breaks down, resulting in an elongated eyeball. The retina and sclera deteriorate, leading to the formation of a bulge, known as a staphyloma. Approximately 50% of patients who develop a staphyloma in both eyes will become legally blind by the age of 60.
People with choroideremia may develop progressive nearsightedness. This condition begins when the light-receiving cells of the retina begin to atrophy early in life. The loss of the choroid may also lead to progressive vision loss. Because the choroid does not drain properly, fluid builds up in the eye, causing cell death and tissue damage. A genetic test may help confirm if choroideremia is the cause of nearsightedness.
Males affected by choroideremia are carriers of the CHM gene. Female carriers typically do not experience vision loss, but some develop a mild disease. The condition is inherited from parents through an X-linked pattern. Male carriers pass the mutation to their female children, but not to their male children. Female carriers have a 50% chance of passing on the mutation to their children. Although choroideremia is a rare condition, it does exist in 10 to 20 males in a million people.