Tuberculosis or TB is an infectious lung disease that causes a huge number of deaths all over the world. Tuberculosis has many signs and symptoms. One of the clinical features is cough. The duration of signs and symptoms which persist after treatments vary. The duration is different from one person to another. Patients react and respond to treatment differently. Some patients will no longer cough earlier than the others. Online Consultation for TB treatments is available to help you understand and get the appropriate medical attention you needed.  

Tuberculosis or TB is still causing so many deaths all over the world. This disease is now no longer only affecting the third world countries and developing countries. Tuberculosis is now the burden of developed countries too. This is because the migration rate is high nowadays. The mode of transportation and digital technologies have made travelling and migration much easier. People travel for so many reasons. The examples are for education, job, vacation, and medical attention.

To confirm that someone is having tuberculosis, history taking, physical examination, and investigations are needed. History taking and physical examination are important to detect and analyze the signs and symptoms of a patient. The signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis are:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Painful ulcer in a few sites of the body
  • Malaise
  • Coughing out blood
  • Night sweats
  • Abnormal findings on chest and lung examination
  • Abnormal findings from general physical examination

Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medications is one of the reasons why there is still a high number of Tuberculosis (TB) cases all over the world. Resistance to anti-tuberculosis medications has a few different definitions. The definitions are:

  • Drug-resistant TB is when the causative organism is resistant to any of the first-line anti-TB medications
  • Multidrug-resistant TB is when the causative organism is resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, and other possible medications
  • Pre-extensively drug-resistant TB is when the causative organism is resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, and quinolones or other injectable medications
  • Extensively drug-resistant TB is when the causative organism is resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides or capreomycin or both.
  • Drug-resistant TB is when the causative organism is resistant to all medications
  • Primary drug resistance is when a patient developed resistance even before receiving any anti-TB medications before
  • Secondary drug resistance is when a patient developed resistance after receiving anti-Tb medications before

China, India, Russia, and the countries of the former Soviet Union are the countries which reported to have the highest number of Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases. Risk factors for Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are:

  • Persistent abnormal chest x-ray findings despite being under treatment
  • Blood cultures are still positive although been treated for at least 3 months
  • Not compliance with anti-TB medications
  • Poorly supervised treatment
  • Previous history of treatment failure
  • Relapse
  • Exposure to the patient with Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis 
  • Travel to countries with a high number of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis cases
  • Woking in any place with reported Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis cases

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis patients will require a different treatment plan and approach. They need to be on an expanded empiric treatment regimen for drug-resistant TB. There are few options for an expanded empiric treatment regimen for drug-resistant TB. The selection of the suitable treatment option depends on many factors, evidence, and clinical judgment of a physician.